John M. Krafft
Department of English
English 111 Spring 2004
John M. Krafft
Office: 558 Mosler Hall
Office Hours: Mon. 1:00– 2:00
Tue. 12:00–12:50 and 6:50–
Thu. 4:00– 5:15 and 6:50–
And by appointment
Office Phone: 785-3258
Home Phone: 868-2330 (Call me at home at any time for any reason.)
Trimbur. The Call to Write . 2nd ed.
Marius. A Writer's Companion . 4th ed.
Raimes. Keys for Writers . 3rd ed.
A collegiate dictionary
The syllabus is flexible: We will add some readings, and we can always add, drop or swap other assignments.
Don't feel limited by my selection and arrangement of assignments from Trimbur's Call to Write ; read whatever else you want to whenever you want to. Keep up with the class, but also follow your interests and needs. Reading something that hasn't been assigned can give you ideas about something that has been. Trimbur provides many helpful cross-references, and the book's regular features on ethics, invention, document design and other elements can come in handy any time, so browse freely. Chapter 2 can even help you develop good study skills.
All of Marius's Writer's Companion will be relevant and useful all semester, especially since it sets the standards by which your writing will be judged. I have assigned it chapter by chapter for convenience, but you should read the whole book early and then consult it often. Chapter 11's summary of grammar and mechanics is particularly practical. If you are wise, you won't wait to read it until it is assigned.
Tue. 1/13— Introduction to the course
Thu. 1/15— This syllabus: by now you are to have read it, including the computing guide, carefully, not just scanned it, highlighting points to remember or to ask me about; Trimbur, chapter 11, through page 406
Tue. 1/20— Trimbur, chapter 11, page 407 to the end; Marius, preface and chapter 1; draft of paper 1 due
Thu. 1/22— Paper 1 (review) due; discussion cont.
Tue. 1/27— “Reports,” a chapter from the first edition of Trimbur that I will hand out
Thu. 1/29— Marius, chapter 2 (compare Trimbur, chapter 12)
Tue. 2/ 3— Marius, chapter 3 and appendix 2 (compare Trimbur, chapter 14)
Thu. 2/ 5— Discussion cont.
Tue. 2/10— Draft workshop: draft of paper 2 due
Thu. 2/12— Paper 2 (report) due; discussion cont.
Tue. 2/17— Monday-Tuesday exchange: no class (Monday classes meet)
Thu. 2/19— Trimbur, chapter 9
Tue. 2/24— Marius, chapter 4, through page 71
Thu. 2/26— Library instruction: Meet in Schwarm 223 (the library-instruction classroom on the Wilks-Schwarm bridge)
Tue. 3/ 2— Trimbur, chapter 3, through page 81
Thu. 3/ 4— Trimbur, chapter 3, page 81 to the end
Tue. 3/ 9— Draft workshop: draft of paper 3 due
Thu. 3/11— Paper 3 (commentary) due; discussion cont.
Week of 3/15–19— Spring break
Tue. 3/23— Trimbur, chapter 4
Thu. 3/25— Marius, chapter 6
Tue. 3/30— Trimbur, chapter 22, through page 739
Thu. 4/ 1— Marius, chapter 7
Tue. 4/ 6— Draft workshop: draft of paper 4 due
Thu. 4/ 8— Paper 4 (letter) due; discussion cont.
Tue. 4/13— Trimbur, chapter 10
Thu. 4/15— Marius, chapter 8
Tue. 4/20— Marius, chapter 10
Thu. 4/22— Marius, chapter 11
Tue. 4/27— Draft workshop: draft of paper 5 due
Thu. 4/29— Portfolio including paper 5 (proposal) due
Finals week, 5/ 3– — Writing courses do not have finals.
What should you write about? I will make writing assignments as we go, usually selecting from among the options Trimbur offers (ruling some out as not entirely suitable to the purposes of the course). Within the framework of the course and of any assignment, you should write about what interests you so much that you want to get others interested in it. If you think you aren't interested in a particular assignment, find a way to get interested so you can be interesting. Use any assignment or suggested topic to guide your thinking, not limit your explorations. You are welcome to suggest variations on any assignments in Trimbur, but discuss your ideas for such modifications with me in case I foresee difficulties you don't. Keep me informed, and let me help.
Few worthwhile assignments are ready-to-wear or one-size-fits-all. Most writing prompts need to be cast in your own language and then the results allowed to evolve so your papers read throughout like the expression of your own ideas and concerns. Try not to write (or think) as if merely or mechanically answering someone else's questions. Make the questions your own. Create papers with their own sense of purpose and source of interest. Your readers should not get the impression you had to be prompted or are taking an exam. Don't try to write only what you think I want; make me want what you write. If you don't, I may not read it.
1. To recognize writing, including your writing, as a means of exploration as well as expression; to cultivate the discipline and skills that foster confidence, fluency and effectiveness in writing; to cultivate and demonstrate maturity in thought and style.
2. To learn to engage and reward readers' interest.
3. To become sensitive to the effects of diction, imagery, sentence structure and organization in both what we read and what we write, and thus to gain greater control over the effects our writing choices have on our readers.
4. To learn to express observations in appropriate specific detail and to substantiate generalizations, assertions and claims with evidence.
5. To develop skill in exposition and argument.
6. To achieve writing that is free of grammatical, mechanical, usage and spelling problems.
7. To cultivate the attitudes and skills that make reading both a pleasure and an occasion for critical reflection; to learn to read sensitively, observe carefully and write analytically, critically, persuasively.
8. To participate in open, free, thought-provoking discussion; to learn from and with others; to learn by helping others learn.
1. We will read a variety of essays, discuss their contents, organization, rhetorical strategies, style and the like, and try to learn from their strengths and weaknesses.
2. We will write and write, and rewrite and rewrite.
3. We will sometimes break up into small groups to discuss the readings, to develop plans for writing, and to do peer consulting/critiquing/editing.
4. We will study principles and techniques of effective writing. 
5. We will sometimes discuss portions of your work read aloud, and I may sometimes pass out photocopies of your papers.
6. Try to stop by my office at least two or three times during the semester to talk—whether you need to or not. You can make an appointment or just drop in.
7. I will gladly hold workshops or study sessions outside class to demonstrate my grading, discuss revising, work on grammar, or whatever you like.
8. If you need an accommodation based on the effect of a disability, contact the Office of Disability Services in 120 Rentschler Hall (785-3211). If you have already registered with the office and would like to discuss arrangements for this class, talk with me privately as soon as possible.
1. Punctual completion of all assigned reading.
You must have completed reading each assignment by the time we begin discussing it. Even those readings we may not have time to discuss at length are important and useful (I wouldn't assign them if they weren't), and I will assume you have completed them and can draw on them by the due date.
2. Informed and thoughtful participation in class discussion and group work.
3. Satisfactory and punctual completion of all writing assignments—drafts,  essays, revisions, exercises, and so on.
4. You will turn in your papers by e-mail as attached Word (.doc) files. (I will return papers as printouts, usually within one to two weeks.) Follow standard formatting guidelines as if you were handing in hard copy, especially since you will be making printouts for yourself, for other members of your group, and occasionally for me. Double space (not necessary when doing free writing or other informal work), and leave a one-inch margin all around. I will ask for paper copies of drafts and some miscellaneous work, but otherwise, if I don't specify hard copy, assume I want a file. Or, when you aren't sure, just ask me.
5. When we do group work on drafts, you will need enough photocopies or printouts of your draft for everyone in your group, including yourself, to have one—and one for me. To be certain of having enough, bring five (5) paper copies.
6. If I refer you to the Learning Assistance Center for tutoring, you must begin going there promptly (within a week) and continue to go until you solve your writing problems. You are welcome to get help from your cousin who is an English teacher or from your girlfriend's step-mother's uncle in addition, but not instead of going to Learning Assistance.
If you miss more than two classes, I may consider you to have, in effect, withdrawn from the course, and I may drop you. (According to university policy, absence for certain religious observances is not an attendance issue as discussed here: see MUPIM 10.1.) If you miss a class, you will still be responsible for what you miss, including assigned reading, for obtaining any other assignments, information or material you need, and also for punctually handing in any written work due or assigned that day. If you come to class late, leave early, or are unprepared, I may have to count you absent.
Miscellaneous informal writing, drafts, first four compositions and intermediate revisions: 1/3
Final revisions of two compositions: 1/3
Last new composition: 1/3 
If you fail to hand in two writing assignments, including drafts, on time, I may consider you to have, in effect, withdrawn from the course, and I may drop you. Being dropped can mean receiving an F, so don't let yourself be unpleasantly surprised. You can find yourself in trouble quickly if you are, or appear, negligent, so keep on your toes, and keep in touch with me.
Elaborations and Advice
1. Keep up with your reading and writing, and always be sure to bring your books, notes and papers with you. Even one or two students' not having done their work can damage the substance and morale of class discussion. If you come to class unprepared, I may have to ask you to leave and count you absent. I hope that won't happen, since it too can damage class morale. We won't have time to discuss everything you read, but that doesn't mean you don't need to read it or can't use it. If you think reading something we don't discuss is a waste of your time, talk to me about it.
2. When we do group work on drafts, you will need to bring enough photocopies or printouts of your draft for everyone in your group, including yourself, to have one—and one for me. Five copies should be enough. Plan ahead. You will not have time to go print or copy once class begins. Allow plenty of time to contend with heavy traffic, misbehaving printers and out-of-order copiers. Be on time, and be prepared. Your group needs you, and you need your group; so I cannot logically excuse you for missing a workshop or for not having enough copies of your draft—a complete working draft. If you are not prepared, or if you don't drop off a (paper) copy of your draft for me at the beginning of class, you will have to attempt to persuade me— in writing , within a week—not to count you absent.
3. Plan ahead, and don't wait till the last minute to begin an essay. You will need plenty of time to think, research, experiment, write, rewrite, and rewrite some more. Don't take for granted that I will give you extra time if you ask for it only after a paper is due. (If you are serious about your work, you will think of the draft date as the due date, the date by which you must have ready something very much like a finished essay, not “ just a draft.”) But before an assignment is due, we can negotiate about almost any detail.  If you have a problem with a due date, discuss it with me, privately, ahead of time; we can probably reach an understanding. When in doubt, ask, the sooner the better.
4. If you miss a class, you will necessarily miss something (not just work, but an experience) it would be better not to miss. The class, and especially your workshop group, will also miss having the benefit of your participation. Unfortunately, missing class for a good reason is just as detrimental as missing class for no particular reason. If you know you are going to miss a class, see or call or e-mail me in advance to let me know, partly for courtesy's sake, and partly so I can help you get an early start on overcoming as much of the loss as possible. As with a problem you foresee in getting a paper done on time, if you know something that, for your sake, I ought to know, be sure to let me know promptly. Don't leave me guessing. If you have ever been stood up by your date, you know that not getting in touch does send a message. Even illness is not an automatic excuse, especially if you don't call or e-mail me. Simply telling me during the next class that you missed the previous one is irresponsible and insulting. In any case, if you miss either two writing assignments (including drafts) or more than two classes, I may consider you to have, in effect, withdrawn from the course, unless within one week you make a successful detailed written case—an eloquent and persuasive demonstration of your merits as a writer and an asset to the class—for being kept on the roster. Since I am concerned about the effects that missing classes or assignments can have on your writing, you will have the chance to show me in writing that I don't need to worry.
5. We already have some thirty appointments here over the next four months, so you should not make any medical, dental, legal or other appointments that encroach on class time. You should also be able to say no to an employer who wants you to work during or inconveniently close to class time. If you are in school, in part, so you can get a better job someday, you shouldn't let the worse job you have now get the better of your education. Vacations during the semester also seem frivolous compared to your education. If such an attendance issue arises, discuss it with me ahead of time, outside class.
6. Determine to arrive by the time class begins and to stay until it ends. If you ever do arrive late, be discreet and polite about entering, or wait for a lull and then knock. Don't come in while I am reading to the class. Don't walk in front of the class or in front of anyone, including me, who is speaking to the class. If you carry a pager or a phone, turn it off (don't just set it to vibrate) before class begins. Plan not to leave even briefly during class, since it is inevitably distracting. If you must leave, say something to me, or to a neighbor who will tell me, about when or whether you will be back. Otherwise, I may count you absent for arriving late or leaving early.
7. Whatever you name your files as you work on your papers (paper 3, English assignment, My Summer Vacation.revision 5), name the copies you e-mail to me as I specify below, based on 1) your Miami unique ID , 2) the assignment number , and 3) your English 111 section letter (ignoring the H common to all sections on the Hamilton campus). Do not confuse the name of the file with the title of your paper or with anything else written in the file.
Give the files you send me names consisting of your unique ID, plus the number of the assignment, plus the letter of your course section, in that order, with no spaces or other characters between elements. For instance, if I were turning in my second paper and were a student in section B , I would save a copy of my paper as a file named krafftjm2b and e-mail that file. 
That file-naming scheme is convenient and safe—for me. I can account for your files quickly and easily according to unique ID, assignment number and section letter. I will immediately delete all other files as irrelevant, unsolicited and possibly dangerous.
The easy way to rename an open file is to use the “save as” function on the File menu.  To rename a closed file, find and select its name in a file list, press F2, edit the name, and press Enter.
Word automatically adds the extension .doc to every file name (producing file names like krafftjm2b.doc), but that should not affect the part of the file name you control.
While we're on the subject of names, for my convenience, any paper you send me should have your name at the very top (not counting the header, and even if you also include your name in a header or footer), flush left, with no blank lines above it and with nothing else on that first line.
8. This course should challenge you. Some people find challenge upsetting because it usually takes the form of asking us to reflect, evaluate or re-evaluate—think. Thinking is difficult, and we would sometimes rather avoid the trouble and discomfort. But reading critically and writing effectively require thinking, and thinking often requires changing what we think we think—possibly even who we think we are. Thinking is not the same as simply having an opinion.
9. Mere opinions as such—mine or yours—don't count for much. Of course we have opinions: so what? If you have ever been stuck beside a bore in a waiting room or on an airplane or bus, you know opinions are not in themselves interesting just because someone has them. No one else is likely to care about opinions just because they are ours. Readers care about the experiences, perceptions and judgments a writer lets them share and makes them care about. If you present an experience vividly, render a perception precisely, or construct a well-reasoned, amply-supported argument, you offer readers the opportunity to see and feel and think as you do. When we have the chance and the responsibility to do that, merely flaunting our opinion is a cop-out. If our opinion matters in such a case, readers will probably assume it coincides with, indeed stems from, our reasoning, and we might actually spoil our effect by invoking mere opinion.
10. I don't, then, try to force my opinions on anyone. I do, however, press you to provide the reasons and evidence for what you say. I urge you not to rely on unsupported opinions, but to develop your opinions into plausible judgments. I do have many strong convictions on a variety of subjects, but that doesn't mean I expect you to think only what I think. It would be tiresome and pointless if you did. Even when your essays take positions I share, I have to read as if I don't already agree with you so I can judge the effectiveness of your presentation. As your English instructor, I am more concerned with how well you reason and express yourself than with what you think. And as a devoted reader, I am eager to have your writing persuade me to think as you do.
11. Good papers come in many forms; so do bad papers. And papers often have both strengths and weaknesses. To evaluate something as complex as an essay with something as starkly simple as a letter grade is difficult. A letter grade can't always adequately represent either the work's quality or a reader's response. But we seem stuck with the conventional system, crude as it is: A=Excellent; B=Superior; C=Competent; D=Unsatisfactory; F=Unacceptable . If I resort to a split grade, like A/C, C/F, or even F/B, to indicate a marked discrepancy in content/presentation, the lower grade prevails. In any case, more important than grades to your development as a writer are the notations  and comments I make on your papers. Study them carefully, discuss them with me, then revise, revise, revise. Your grades are in your hands. Grades on revised papers replace grades on earlier versions. I encourage you to make the most of your opportunities to improve, and I will be happy to help you.
12. Since effective writing almost always requires repeated, more or less extensive rewriting, I welcome you to revise and resubmit any paper any time (any time, that is, before the last week of class). I encourage you to revise and resubmit papers, not just for the chance to improve your grades, but to improve your writing skills. Even an excellent paper is worth revising, since you can always learn something in the process. At the end of the semester, you will be required to hand in revisions of two papers, regardless of how many papers or how many times you have revised already. But don't wait until then to cultivate your revising skills; like any other skill, revising is something you learn to do well by practicing.
13. Two thirds (see note 3, above) of your grade for the course will be based on three papers: your last new composition, and final revisions of two earlier papers. You get to choose which papers to revise. Choose the two you think will let you demonstrate your best work. Those may or may not be the ones that earned the highest grades before. Choose what you can make into your current best, and think of these revisions as new opportunities—as, in effect, new papers too. (Resubmitting unrevised papers will not fulfill the requirement, and there is more to revising than just editing.) The last new composition gives you the chance to show what kind of writer and how self-sufficient you have become. You will show in that paper how much discipline, skill and judgment you have developed, how well you have learned to produce successful finished writing by revising and editing your own work on your own initiative. I weight your grades the way I do to ensure both an advantage for you and the integrity of the course. If you don't do very well at first, that need not hurt you in the long run. If you learn to revise well, that can help you. But finally, you have to demonstrate your achieved level of competence; that is why you cannot receive a grade for the course that is more than one letter higher than the grade on your last new composition. Apart from that constraint, especially in borderline cases, I try not to figure your course grade rigidly mathematically, but look for trends that may tip the balance in your favor.
14. A word about grades and effort. No one else may ever be able to tell how much effort you (or I) put into writing, so you will do well to cultivate your own capacity for self-appreciation. Learn to gain satisfaction, at least in part, from your own sense of having done your best. If your work is good enough for certain readers or good enough to earn a certain grade, fine. If it isn't, at least you will have the reward of knowing you did your best. No one else can give you that reward, and no one else can deprive you of it. Sometimes it is the only reward we get, so we had better value it. I can't accurately judge or possibly grade your effort. Even if I thought I could, I shouldn't reward you for what I take to be your effort any more than I should punish you for what I might take to be a lack of effort. You may work hard but achieve little (as far as others can tell), or, in rare cases, work seemingly little but achieve splendor. What counts for your readers is your writing itself, not what they may imagine you put into it. Besides, writing which suggests it required great effort and strain may not be very effective, while the best writing often seems effortless.
15. To write papers that are well informed, thoughtful and persuasive, you often have to do research. Both pure curiosity and the practical need to know should motivate you. But beware what sources you use and how you use them. You need to exercise good judgment in evaluating evidence and the judgments of others as you make something new. One of your obligations is to be interesting, and it is nearly impossible to be interesting if you merely rehearse what others before you have written.
16. Little of our language and few of our ideas can ever be entirely original; but there are uses of other people's words, ideas and findings that we are ethically obliged to acknowledge. When you do research and your work is influenced by it (if you quote, paraphrase, summarize or borrow information or ideas—and this goes even for the discussions in our textbooks), you must acknowledge your intellectual debts, explicitly in the body of your essay, in notes, and/or in a works-cited list. Otherwise, you may be guilty of plagiarism. Formal research is only an example; you can incur the same obligation informally by reading the newspaper or surfing the Net. So even if you think you already know what plagiarism is, see The Miami Bulletin: The Student Handbook (available in hard copy, or online <http://www.muohio.edu/univpubs/handbook/acadregspV.html>) on the meaning and consequences of academic misconduct. Plagiarism is among the most serious, most contemptible, most intolerable of academic offenses. Don't risk it. Carefully document quotations, sources and the like in the style appropriate to your subject, audience and occasion (see Trimbur, chapter 18).
An effective paper, besides being well organized, coherent, adequately
developed and correctly executed, ought to have a clear thesis, sense
of purpose and source of interest. 
Try not to write as if you are
merely fulfilling an assignment or taking an exam. Write because and as
if you have something interesting you want to say. Your job as a writer
is to engage and reward readers' interest. Don't book-report. Assume your
readers are generally well informed—people you can interest and indeed
must interest. If you write about something you believe your readers know
little or nothing about, be sure you give them good reason to care about
what you offer them. When you write about something your readers already
know a lot about, your aim should be to enlighten them further or to change
their minds in some way, and to persuade even those who may not agree
with you that at least you are making a thoughtful and reasonable case.
First Paper Assignment
Your first paper assignment has two main purposes. It gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your writing skills, and it tests your willingness and ability to follow instructions.
The Paper: Write a review of a local public event you attend. Possible subjects include a sports match, concert or play (but not a movie), an exhibition, demonstration, speech, lecture or sermon, a flea market, auction or fair, a school-board or town-council meeting. The event should be open to the public, and it should occur within approximately ten miles of your home or of a Miami campus. Do not write about a past event you remember; attend an event within the next few days with reviewing it in mind. Review the event; do not merely narrate your attendance. Evaluate the specific event, not just the category (for example, garage sales). Your review will have some characteristics of a newspaper account, so it should naturally address the familiar journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why, and perhaps how. But you will provide more analysis and evaluation than a typical newspaper report does. You will probably say or imply, not why you attended, but why a person reading your review of the event might have wanted to attend, or might want to attend next time—or, for that matter, might not want to. Rely on your own experience and judgment, but keep your readers and their interests and needs in mind. The paper should be three to four pages (approximately 750–1000 words). It is due by 7:00 pm, Thursday, January 22.
The Test: Turning in your papers will demonstrate who has (or at least who has not) read carefully through the computing guide, learned the basics of MUNet and e-mail, taken the dos and don'ts of word processing seriously, and generally followed my instructions.
My instructions assume you will send me your paper from your Miami e-mail account, using either the PC-based program Eudora or the webmail program SquirrelMail . Note: Your Miami e-mail address is the one I will use when I need to e-mail you. If you would rather use a different e-mail service (AOL or Hotmail, for instance), configure your entry in the university directory (PHonebook <http://www.muohio.edu/ph>) so any mail sent to your Miami address will be forwarded to the address you prefer. I can reply to a message from any address, but please do not ask me to initiate a message to you at a non-Miami address.
Log in to MUNet or the myMiami portal using your unique ID and password as described in the first part of the computing guide. If you are a new user, you will need to change your preset password.
Set your mail program to display your real name, not just your e-mail address, in messages you send. In Eudora , go to Tools, to Options, to Getting Started, to Real Name; in SquirrelMail , go to Options, to Personal Information, to Full Name. If you use a different mail program or service, learn and follow its procedure for displaying your real name. (The no-frills webmail program Endymion MailMan <www.muohio.edu/webmail> does not support display of your real name.) Your real name makes your mail instantly recognizable. If you would rather be Peggy Jones than Margaret Jones, or Bob Smith than Robert Smith, that's fine; but if you write as Pinky or The Hulk or eagle273 or your mother's boyfriend, I won't know who you are and may not think finding out is urgent.
Check your e-mail regularly.
Now follow the step-by-step instructions in the “Turning in Your Papers” section of the computing guide. If you have any technical questions, problems or just anxieties, ask for help from a member of the Computing Services staff in Mosler 304 (785-3279). Be sure anyone who helps you understands that you need to follow my instructions exactly—without taking shortcuts or making substitutions.
 Since this is not a remedial writing course, we should seldom need to resort as a whole class to the handbook or to grammar exercises. Your handbook is, however, an essential resource, and I take for granted that you will consult it—and your collegiate dictionary—regularly. Chapter 11 of Marius's Writer's Companion also provides a handy summary of some essentials. Of course, if you have trouble using your handbook or have questions it doesn't answer, I am always ready to help.
In addition, the Office of Learning Assistance, in 102 Rentschler Hall, offers tutoring and remedial help in many subjects, including reading and writing. Learning Assistance services are free to all students. You don't have to wait for me to recommend tutoring if you want help, and you are welcome to go for tutoring just to build your confidence. If I do refer you to Learning Assistance, consider that an additional assignment with the force of a requirement, a sign that you may not be able to pass without such help (see Requirement 6 below).
 For our purposes, “draft” refers to a complete draft (Trimbur calls it a working draft), a much more highly evolved version of a paper than what some people call a “rough” draft. I rarely refer explicitly to rough drafts since I take for granted the necessity of your working far beyond such drafts. The draft you bring to a draft workshop should have many qualities of a finished essay. It must not be a rough draft, since the rougher it is, the less it will serve the purposes of the workshop. If you expect to receive credit for a draft, you must have much more than a series of notes, an outline, a mere paragraph or a hastily-scrawled page. On the other hand, you should not feel you have already written the last word by the time you reach the draft workshop: keep an open mind about taking advice and making further revisions.
 You cannot receive a grade for the course that is more than one letter higher than the grade on your last new composition. This is a matter of principle, not math.
 Again, however, the purpose and dynamics of group work make it hard to negotiate around draft workshops. You need to have a reasonably well-evolved, complete draft, and need to be present to work with it, and with other people and their drafts. Just being there without a draft, or missing class but handing in a draft won't do, since it deprives you and your classmates.
 When you send me a revised paper during the semester, simply substitute r (for revision) for the section letter in the file name you use—krafftjm2r, for instance. The revised papers you turn in on the last day, however, will be papers 6 and 7, so name those files using those numbers and your section letter as explained above.
 “Save as” also allows you to change the word-processing format. That is a handy feature if you don't usually use Word , since I accept files in Word (.doc) format only.
 Instead of using hand-written checks, circles and underlining, I use word-processing stars, number signs and question marks. Think of them like this:
* means “good point” or “well said”;
#means “look here” (notice a problem that should be obvious to you);
?? means “what?” or “why?” or “how so?” or “give examples or evidence,” or “explain further”;
#?marks an omission, a questionable usage or a usage requiring adjustment elsewhere;
#//marks a problem with parallelism.
If you can't figure out why I marked something the way I did, just ask.
 Effective writing involves much more than mere correctness. Conventional spelling, punctuation and grammar alone cannot make a paper successful. But even a few seemingly minor lapses can weaken or ruin an otherwise promising paper by distracting readers or destroying their confidence in the writer.
 For the goals of the Miami Plan as they are reflected in the description of this course, see, for example: 1) thinking critically—objectives 3, 5 and 7, procedure 1, and elaborations 8-10, 15 and 17; 2) understanding contexts—objectives 3 and 7, and elaboration 5; 3) engaging with other learners—objective 8, procedures 3 and 5, requirement 2, and elaboration 2; and 4) reflecting and acting—objectives 1-3, and elaborations 3 and 12-14.
This document was last modified on January 13, 2004, by jmk.